My Blog Adventure!

Welcome to my blog! It's high time this 46 year old ventures into blog world and joins the ranks of you intriguing bloggers. First off, you should know I love the Lord Jesus Christ with all my heart. I love His Creation, His Word, His forgiveness, His mercy, and His being the Savior of my life. He is my reason for living! After the Lord, my next love in life is my outdoor-lovin', prankster pullin', hard workin' man I've called my husband for 22 years and counting. My 3 sons - to whom this blog is dedicated - have the next piece of my heart, and they fill my world with laughter, love, and laundry. I am calling this MY BLOG ADVENTURE... so hop into blog world with me... let's get to encouraging one another... this could be fun!

Sunday, March 18, 2018

Hands-on Learning Engages All Types of Students

From Our House to Yours

Hands-on projects in Creation to Christ bring history to life!

Three days each week in Creation to Christ Emmett progressively works on a history project.  Projects closely correspond with the weekly history theme and give a creative outlet for him to express what he's learned.  They use items I readily have on hand, and they are never the same from week to week.  Emmett adores his history projects!  In fact, he took these pictures himself this week.  He was so proud of his Roman decked out 'soldier!'  His Roman soldier has a helmet, tunic, armour, belt, sandals, and travel pack equipment.  Emmett will not soon forget how a soldier in the Roman Empire was at all times ready for battle! 

Hands-on projects engage every kind of learner!

It's obvious hands-on projects engage children who are kinesthetic or tactile learners, who enjoy movement while learning.  But, did you know they also engage auditory learners, who enjoy talking about what they are learning?  They even engage visual learners, as they see what they create come to life!  Finally, social learners naturally enjoy getting to share their projects with us as moms.  So, every kind of learner benefits from hands-on projects!  

Hands-on map drawings in World Geography bring history to life!

World Geography provides a chronological approach to geography that is based on the history of exploration, discovery, and mapmaking.  It starts with the ancient cultures and ends with polar region exploration.  Ellen McHenry's Mapping the World with Art gives step-by-step DVD instructions to help students make their own world map.  This is only one part of earning World Geography credit, however, it is one of Riley's favorites!  


Hands-on drawing of maps engages learners in a more memorable way!

As students study cartography and mapping through history, they connect in a more memorable way by making their own maps.  Riley understands first-hand how difficult it is to make maps.  This is something that cannot be learned from simply studying others' maps!  As he reads about the struggles cartographers faced making maps, he can empathize with them.  It's not easy to visualize that which you cannot aerially see.  Hands-on drawing helps him commit to memory what he is learning!

Hands-on Book of Centuries entries in U.S. History II bring history to life!

U.S. History II marks the end of a 4-year journey of keeping a Book of Centuries.  Keeping a Book of Centuries is a Charlotte Mason hands-on skill that pairs well with high school students.  Printing, cutting, coloring, and gluing timeline entries helps students gain a  mental picture of individuals and events within a century.  Wyatt wanted me to snap a picture of this today because he 'had an entire 2-page spread' completed!  

Hands-on compilation of a Book of Centuries gives high school students a keepsake of the history studied in high school!

Compiling this Book of Centuries provides a hands-on way to create a keepsake of history that has been studied.  This helps students commit to memory the overall flow of history, rather than memorize individual unconnected facts.  I like how the Book of Centuries is handmade and not just a preprinted timeline chart someone else made professionally.  Wyatt has made reference to keeping his Book of Centuries handy after graduating, just as a chronological resource.  Now that is truly a special high school keepsake from his time spent studying history!  My quizzes I took in history never made their way into my 'have to have reference resources' post high school.  I'm so glad Wyatt has something to show for his years of high school history he cares enough to keep.  This is just more reason to keep meaningful hands-on learning a part of Heart of Dakota from start to finish!  

In Christ,
Julie




Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Family Time Sharing Together When Doing Separate Guides

From Our House to Yours

Do you have family time sharing together when students are doing separate guides? 
Absolutely! In fact, there are natural times within the day when it just makes sense for our family to share learning. The Roman feast Emmett prepared for his Creation to Christ history activity gave us the perfect time to get together. Emmett dressed in Roman attire and prepared a simple meal. He set places for each of us, explained each course, and served us. Putting his own personality into it, as he often does, he found Roman music online to play in the background. Providing entertainment was another part of the plans in his guide. So, Emmett theatrically read some of his favorite poetry (into a microphone, of course)!  He also became our Roman tour guide, giving us an 'audio tour' of life based on his storytime City reading.  

Riley shared his Essentials in Writing composition with the family as part of the entertainment for the Roman feast. 


Riley chose to write his Essentials in Writing essay about the differences between dogs and cats. I really wanted him to share this with his brothers. We own two dogs and one cat, so I knew his brothers would love this essay. Riley worked hard on this composition piece, and all that was left for him to do was a final edit. Reading aloud an essay is a wonderful way to catch mistakes! So, for many reasons, it made sense to have him read aloud his essay during the Roman feast. 

Wyatt shared his Economics "Enterprising Entrepreneur" project with the family as part of the entertainment for the Roman feast.

Wyatt chose to research Donald Trump for his Economics "Enterprising Entrepreneur" assignment. His research was focused on Donald Trump's real estate success and business savvy that led him to the White House. Part of his grade was to present his project to an audience and allow them to ask questions afterwards. Sharing is easier when others share something too, so adding it to the entertainment of the Roman feast was perfect.

Guard against a few things when planning family sharing times within multiple guides.

There are a few things to guard against when planning for family sharing times within multiple guides. First, adding a lot of additional time to the day causes students who have more work to get behind. This may result in things being skipped in the guide they are actually responsible for completing. Or, it may result in a longer day, which makes being involved in the next family sharing time a negative. 

Having everyone do everything in every guide adds unnecessary time to the day and confuses intended roles.

Second, having everyone do everything in every guide adds unnecessary time to the day as well. It was Emmett's turn to lead the Roman feast. His brothers had their turn years' back when they completed Creation to Christ. So, Emmett was in charge leading the event, and his brothers simply shared in the 'entertainment' part when called upon. The older two siblings were folded into the primary event of the Roman feast. In this role, though they may have thought they could lead it better, their place was on the sidelines. Being the encouraging audience was their role, rather than being the 'star of the show.' One must remember, Creation to Christ is not the guide they are completing. Likewise, when it was Riley's turn to share his Essentials in Writing essay, his siblings took on the role of being the attentive audience. They were to be the encouragers, not the editors.  Editing is Riley's role in this Essentials in Writing assignment. Finally, when it was Wyatt's turn to share his Economics Enterprising Entrepreneur presentation, his siblings took on the role being the attentive audience. Their role was not to interrupt but to listen.  Time for a few questions was provided at the end, and that was the time for them to talk. 

Time Wasters Versus Time Savers in This Particular Family Sharing

  • Waster - making the Roman feast a separate meal on the weekend with extra groceries VERSUS...
  • Saver - making the Roman feast our lunch for the day using what we have on hand

  • Waster - searching endlessly for poetry on the Internet or in books VERSUS...
  • Saver - reading poetry already part of the Creation to Christ Appendix

  • Waster - having everyone dress up for the feast and plan the meal VERSUS...
  • Saver - having only Emmett dress up and plan the meal, which was part of his responsibility in his guide only

  • Waster - having my middle son in World Geography share random things he is learning VERSUS...
  • Saver - having him read aloud his Essentials in Writing assignment and edit it, which he needs to do anyway for his plans

  • Waster - having my oldest son in U.S. History II share random things he is learning VERSUS...
  • Saver - having him read aloud his Economics "Enterprising Entrepreneur" assignment, which is a required part of his plans

The only 'expert' in the sharing is the one carrying out the plans in his guide.

Respect for the one who is carrying out the plans within the guide is a must.  There is no room for 'tips' on how to improve, for interruptions that distract, or for additional knowledge being shared. A positive sharing experience can quickly become a negative sharing experience if someone else is 'always the expert.' The only expert in the sharing is the one sharing.  It is their turn to shine when it is their guide. Others will have a turn to shine when it is their guide's assignment to do so. These are a few of the staples for creating an encouraging, safe environment to share learning together.  Hope it gives you all some ideas! 

In Christ,
Julie

P.S. If you want to read more on this topic, Carrie has excellent commentary on this.  Check out her response to the commonly asked question "How will we be learning as a family, if we do separate guides?"
http://www.heartofdakota.com/board3/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=9343





Sunday, March 4, 2018

Personal Style Within the Structure of the Plans, Part 3

Can you encourage personal style within the provided structure of Heart of Dakota's plans?  

Without a doubt!  As I shared last week, the opportunity to include creative personal style is already part of Heart of Dakota’s plans.  So, how are both included then you may wonder?  Well, the daily plans provide specific guidelines for each school subject, which gives structure for each assignment.  Structure might include questions that must be answered, topics that must be addressed, key words that must be included, etc.  So, specific parameters are given, but they need not take away the creativity of personal style!

How can students get creative with their personal style then?
Glad you asked!  Personal style is included in a living books approach to homeschooling, and Heart of Dakota uses a living books approach.  Narrations have structure, like which book to read, which pages to narrate upon, and which kind of narration to give.  However, they still encourage personal style.  Students can choose what to retell, how to retell it, and when to connect it to an author's style.  In contrast to Heart of Dakota's living books approach, a textbook and workbook approach includes a more robotic response.  Likewise, assessments in textbook and workbook approaches include one right answer only questions - not much personal style allowed there!  Instead of this dry approach to learning, Heart of Dakota includes varied assessments within the daily structure of the plans.  

Do you have some examples of personal style being encouraged within the structure of the plans?
Absolutely!  This week, let's chat about my son, Wyatt, who is using U.S. History II.  I’ll start with the 'Key Word' Written Narration assignment.  Wyatt is my 'big picture' narrator, so including key words in his oral narrations is something he does quite naturally.  Writing 4-5 paragraphs in response to his America: The Last Best Hope II reading is something he does well now.  But at the start, we worked together to learn the ins and outs of the structure of the plans.  Underlining each required element of structure helped nothing to get missed.  Initially, I assigned points for each structure noted in the plans.  For example, 10 points for choosing key words, 10 points for including key words in the writing,  etc.  I didn't assign a grade for this as he was still learning how to follow the structure of the plans.  But, if he received 40 out of 50 points, he could see where corrections needed to be made. A few months into the guide, this point system was no longer necessary.  Spending time helping him learn the structure of each assessment set him free to add his own personal style! Once all the structured elements are included, personal style can then be added, and that's when the fun begins!

Key Word Written Narration Assignment


Structure in the Plans: 

  • certain pages must be read
  • a key word list must be made
  • key words must be included in written narration
  • written narration must be 4-5 paragraphs long
  • key words used must be highlighted
  • written narration must be read aloud
  • narration must be edited using Written Narration Skills checklist
Personal Style:           
  • chose own key words to use
  • chose own topics to narrate upon
  • chose how to include key words such as names, dates, places, actions, and/or quotes
  • chose to write in print or cursive
  • chose to read aloud written narration to me
A Few Things to Remember:
Key words are to be chosen by the student. If the key words aren't the words you'd have chosen - for personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands key words are pertinent to the reading and included in the narration. Likewise, students need not be made to write in cursive. But, if the writing isn't legible enough for the student to read it aloud, it must be fixed.

Living Library 'Triple-Entry Journal' Assignment


Structure in the Plans: 

  • certain pages must be read
  • meaningful passages or quotes should be flagged
  • triple column entry format must be used
  • column 1 must include quote
  • column 2 must include the context
  • column 3 must include personal commentary
Personal Style:           
  • chose own quotes or passages
  • chose own personal reaction to share in commentary
  • chose to write quotes in cursive and context and commentary in print
  • chose to read aloud triple-entry journal assignment to me
A Few Things to Remember:
This is an extra credit option in the plans. So, if the quotes chosen aren't your favorite - in the name of personal style - let it be! However, structure demands the triple-entry journal format is followed. So if any portion of the assignment is missing, it must be completed to be called 'done.' 


Key Decisions in U.S. History II History Activities Assignment

Structure in the Plans: 
  • certain pages must be read 
  • certain question must be answered
  • a decision from provided options must be chosen
  • chosen decision must be supported and explained
  • Key decision actually made in history must be read at end
Personal Style:           
  • chose which decision he would have made
  • chose to support his chosen decision by explaining why he would have not chosen the other decisions
  • chose the length of his explanation
  • chose to read his decision aloud to me
A Few Things to Remember:
One of the decisions listed was actually the decision made in history.  However, in the name of personal style, if the student chose a different decision, that's absolutely fine!  That's the goal of this assignment, to show how decisions made in history are not always easy.  Nor are the decisions made always right.  However, structure demands one of the given decisions is chosen, explained, and supported.

British Literature Journal Assignment

Structure in the Plans:
  • ponder the questions in the Introduction
  • read and annotate given pages
  • must include given annotation
  • must reflect in writing upon given questions in British literature journal
  • must view Pride and Prejudice DVD
Personal Style:
  • chose his own annotations to make
  • chose how much detail to include in his answers in his journal
  • chose whether to write in print or in cursive
  • chose to read aloud his British literature journal assignment to me
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a quiz!  So, if your student didn't make the annotations you would have - for personal style – let it be!  However, structure demands annotations are made and questions are answered.  If all of the questions are not answered in writing, the assignment isn't 'good enough' until they are.

The past few weeks, I've shared assignments from Creation to Christ, World Geography, and U.S. History II.  Hopefully, you've enjoyed seeing how the structure of Heart of Dakota's plans still encourages personal style!  I hope you can embrace not only the solid academics structure provides, but also the joy personal style can bring.  Have a wonderful week, ladies!!!

In Christ,

Julie

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Personal Style Within the Structure of the Plans, Part 2

Can you encourage personal style within the provided structure of Heart of Dakota's plans?  

You certainly can!  In fact, as I shared last week, the opportunity for personal style is already part of Heart of Dakota’s plans.  You may be wondering, how are both included then?  Well, the daily plans provide specific guidelines for each school subject, which gives structure for each assignment.  Structure might include which kind of oral narration to give, how many sentences to write, what headings to use, etc.  So, needed parameters are given, but they need not squelch the creativity of personal style!

How can students get creative with their personal style then?
Excellent question!  Well, blessedly personal style is a natural part of a living books approach to homeschooling.  Better yet, a living books approach to learning is already included in every Heart of Dakota guide!  Narrations have structure, like which book to read, which pages to narrate upon, and which kind of narration to give.  But, they also encourage personal style.  Students can choose which parts to retell, what manner to retell them, and what connections they’ve made.  This is the opposite of a textbook and workbook approach, which includes a more encyclopedia-like 'facts only' response.  Similarly, the different assessments included in the structure of the plans are the opposite of ‘test and forget it’ assessments. 

Do you have some examples of personal style being encouraged within the structure of the plans?
I sure do!  I’m so glad you asked because this is what I wanted to share with you in my weekly check-in.  Let's chat about my son, Riley, this week, who is using World Geography this year.  I’ll start with the Living Library one-sentence summary assignment.  This assignment is harder than it seems!  In fact, as Riley is my detailed narrator, trying to respond to his reading with a one-sentence summary is difficult.  At the start of the guide, he chose the option to write 3 sentences on scratch paper first.  Then, he took each of the most important parts from the 3 sentences and consolidated them into one sentence.  Twenty-three units into the year, he no longer chooses to start with 3 sentences.  In fact, he has become adept at writing a one-sentence summary with every part the guide asks him to include.  This assignment is the perfect follow-up to his Living Library reading.  It does not ‘get between the child and the book,’ as Charlotte Mason would applaud.  Keep in mind, this isn’t a required part of earning credit, but rather a way to earn extra credit.  So, as a follow-up to the already extra reading of the Living Library, the assignment is kept appropriately short.

Living Library One-Sentence Summary Assignment

Structure in the Plans: 
  • certain pages must be read
  • a one sentence summary must be written
  • the main character(s), the main action taken, any important conflict, the goal, and the setting must be included
Personal Style:           
  • option to write 3 sentences on scratch paper first
  • chose what to include in summary
  • chose to read aloud summary to me
A Few Things to Remember:
This is an extra credit option in the plans, so if the summary isn’t the exact sentence you would have written - in the name of personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the summary is limited to one sentence and includes the main character, a main action taken, a conflict, a goal and a setting.

World Geography Written Narration Assignment


Structure in the Plans:
  • read assigned Mapping the World with Art pages
  • must be 3-4 paragraphs long
  • must be read aloud to try to catch any mistakes
  • must stick to the topic, support it with details, write in the author’s style, include a strong opening and closing
  • must use the Written Narration Skills in the Appendix to edit
Personal Style:
  • chose his own details to retell
  • chose whether to write 3 or 4 paragraphs
  • chose whether to write in print or in cursive
  • chose his own way to open and close his narration
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a quiz!  So, if your student didn't write what you’d have written - for the sake of personal style – let it be!  However, structure demands reading, writing at least 3 paragraphs, reading it aloud, including noted parameters, and editing.  If it’s not legible enough for the student to read aloud, that’s not ok either.  This is just one more reason not to skip this step!

Geography Activities Assignment:

Structure in the Plans:
  • must watch DVD Scenic Cruises of the World
  • must make bulleted list of important things to experience or see
  • must make lists for 3 provided topics
Personal Style:
  • chose his own details to include in his bulleted lists
  • chose whether to write list in phrases or in sentences
  • chose whether to write in print or cursive
  • chose to read his notes aloud to me
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a composition assignment for English credit.  It’s a response to a DVD viewing of geographical places being studied.  So, if your student didn't write complete sentences or certain facts – for personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the DVD is viewed and bulleted notes are written pertinent to each provided topic.

World Religion and Culture’s Assignment:
Structure in the Plans:
  • must read the assigned pages of the book
  • must answer each of the provided questions
  • must answer the questions over multiple days as assigned
Personal Style:
  • chose how much detail to include in his answers
  • chose whether to write in phrases or in sentences
  • chose whether to write in print or cursive
  • chose to read his answers aloud to me (he orally shared his page numbers/quotes for #2)
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a composition assignment for English credit.  It’s a response to a DVD viewing of geographical places being studied.  So, if your student didn't write complete sentences or certain facts – for personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the DVD is viewed and bulleted notes are written pertinent to each provided topic.

Next week, I'll share Part 3 of this series on personal style within the structure of the plans.  That final post will be in regard to my son, Wyatt, who is completing U.S. History II this year.  Hope you had a good week, ladies!

In Christ,

Julie

Saturday, February 17, 2018

Personal Style Within the Structure of the Plans, Part 1

Can you encourage personal style within the provided structure of Heart of Dakota's plans?  

Absolutely!  In fact, the opportunity for personal style is naturally part of the plans already. How are both included, you may ask?  Well, the daily plans provide specific guidelines for each school subject, which gives structure for each assignment.  This type of structure might include how many sentences a written narration should be, what topics need to be narrated upon, which timeline entries need to be made, etc.  Structure gives needed parameters, but it need not squelch the creativity of personal style!

How can students get creative with their personal style then?
Good question!  Well, the good news is personal style is completely a natural part of a living books approach to learning, and a living books approach to learning is part of every Heart of Dakota guide.  Narrations include structure in the plans, such as which books to narrate upon, which pages within that book to narrate upon, and which kind of narration to give.  But, they also encourage personal style by letting each student choose what to retell, which parts to give more attention, and what connections are made.  This is the opposite of a textbook/workbook approach, which include "just the facts ma'am."  Likewise, the varied assessments included in the structure of Heart of Dakota's plans are the opposite of a worksheet, quizzes, and tests only plan for assessments, which include just one right answer.

Do you have some examples of personal style being encouraged within the structure of the plans?
Well, yes I do!  Glad you asked because this is what I wanted to share with you this week in my weekly check-in!  Let's start with my son, Emmett, in Creation to Christ.



Timeline Entry Assignment

Structure in the Plans: 

  • 3 timeline entries must be made
  • specific pictures must be drawn
  • captions must be written

Personal Style:

  • drew his own pictures
  • colored the pictures how he wanted
  • chose to write his labels in either cursive or print
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a drawing assignment, so if the timeline pictures are not of art quality - in the name of personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the right 3 things are drawn labeled with the proper captions.



Geography Travel Log Assignment

Structure in the Plans:

  • Geography of the Holy Lands must be read
  • writing must show something learned
  • drawing must show something learned
Personal Style:
  • chose his own Travel Log template
  • chose his own 3 topics to write about
  • chose his own picture to draw
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't a quiz, so if your student didn't write a summary of what was learned - in the name of personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the 3 written topics and the 1 drawing must be pertinent to the geography reading.





Poetry Appreciation Assignment:

Structure in the Plans:
  • must read the poem pausing at punctuation marks
  • must write the given stanza
  • must follow the steps to watercolor paint
Personal Style:
  • chose his own way of doing the painting (no 'perfect' model was given for him to look at, which encourages personal style as opposed to exactly duplicating someone else's painting)
  • chose his own small picture to draw
  • chose where to place his index card
A Few Things to Remember:
This isn't an art appreciation assignment (it's a poetry appreciation assignment), so if your student didn't paint a jaw-dropping picture - in the name of personal style - let it be!  However, structure demands the steps for creating the painting and the steps for creating the card be followed.

Next weekly check-in, I'll share Part 2 of this series on personal style within the structure of the plans in regard to my son Riley, who is completing World Geography this year.  Then, the following weekly check-in, I'll share Part 3 of this series in regard to my son Wyatt, who is completing U.S. History II this year.  For now, I'll just sign off saying... Happy Valentine's Day to all you lovely ladies!  





Sunday, February 11, 2018

Heart of Dakota Week-in-Review Feb. 5-9

Heart of Dakota Week-in-Review
Feb. 5-9



 In USII, Wyatt has been reading I'll Watch the Moon for his living library selection.  This book is a page-turner that just cannot be put down!  The characters have so much depth to them, and his favorite is a holocaust survivor who brings hope and peace to all who know him.  There are some hard things to read in this book!  But then life is hard sometimes, especially in the aftermath of the holocaust.  He worked ahead and did multiple journal entries each day at the end of the book because he just had to know how it ended.  I'll Watch the Moon is a gem of a book that is a rare find - thank you Carrie for choosing so carefully!




In USII History, Wyatt has been learning about "I Like Ike," the end of the Korean War, Billy Graham, and McCarthyism.  He did a detailed high-lighted written narration about his reading from America: The Last Best Hope. Answering some wonderful critical thinking questions really got him thinking deeply about what he read.  The critical thinking question "State Department Worker:  What should you tell the Senate Foreign Relations Committee?" put him in the role of decision maker.  Reading the actual outcome is always interesting as well!!!





In World Geography, Riley wrote a persuasive essay for Essentials in Writing Grade 10. He researched and wrote about the dangers of chewing tobacco.  We know some young adult men not much older than Riley that chew tobacco, and it really worries Riley.  It would be wonderful for them to stop!  His essay explains the dangers of chewing tobacco, and he did an excellent job researching it.  I like that he can choose his own topics within the realm of the requirements of the assignment. This allows him to be personally invested in his essay right from the start!




World Geography History has had Riley learning about Davis' polar journeys, Hudson's and Baffin's Bay, and Raleigh's Ed Dorado.  He drew and labeled a picture of Davis' invention of the backstaff, which allowed navigators to have more accurate latitude readings. An important quote from Davis was also copied in the notebook.  Earlier he wrote a written narration about Martin Frobisher as well. He is truly loving learning about all of these brave explorers!



 In Creation to Christ, Emmett first learned about Alexander the Great conquering Persia and then moved on to learn about Alexander's entire empire.  He used strips of paper to make his own ancient map of the places he has been reading about.  He also drew the famous horse Bucephalus. Timeline entries on the Peloponnesian War, Philip of Macedonia gaining control of Greece, and the Reign of Alexander the Great were added to his notebook as well. He researched Olympia, which was so fitting as the winter olympics are soon beginning here!  Don't you just love it when the Lord makes neat connections between HOD history and real life like this?!? Finally, he drew the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria.





One of his favorite activities this week was painting a lovely sunset to go with his Robert Frost poem "Acceptance." He also enjoyed adding to his plant notebooking booklet.  Researching and drawing the dead nettle plant, as well as copying a Bible verse beneath it, added another lovely entry to his growing plant book.  Finally, we all enjoyed getting together at our house to watch the Superbowl!  Here is a picture of my mom, Nana, with all 7 of the boys!




What a terrific week!  Hope you had a good homeschooling week too!!!

In Christ,
Julie